Social Network Analysis and Legislative Behavior by Тимофій Брік

13 вересня 2017 року з 15-40 у ауд.504 факультету соціології
  1. https://www.slideshare.net/TymofiiBrik/social-network-analysis-and-legis...
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  3. 1. SNA and legislative behavior New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik1 Dmytro Ostapchuk2 1University of Carlos III (tbrik@clio.uc3m.es) 2DataVox and BRDO September 13, 2017 Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 1 / 40
  4. 2. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 2 / 40
  5. 3. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 3 / 40
  6. 4. From graphs to social networks SNA and Social Science Network analysis ... consists of the application of graph theory to the study of relations among a set of items, whether animate (human, apes, etc) or inanimate (countries, organizations, words, blogs, etc.) [1, p. 5]. Social networks are the empirical phenomena of interconnected patterns of relations among living organisms, and social network analysis is the application of network analysis to the study of those patterns. [1, p.5] Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 4 / 40
  7. 5. From graphs to social networks Theoretical inspirations Positivism(s) vs critical theory and constructivism Structure vs agency Social capital Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 5 / 40
  8. 6. From graphs to social networks How it looks Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 6 / 40
  9. 7. From graphs to social networks How it looks Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 7 / 40
  10. 8. From graphs to social networks How it looks (c) kateto.net Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 8 / 40
  11. 9. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 9 / 40
  12. 10. Network Vocabulary Networks and Graphs Figure: (c) Network Science by Barabasi Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 10 / 40
  13. 11. Network Vocabulary Matrixes and Graphs Figure: (c) Network Science by Barabasi Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 11 / 40
  14. 12. Network Vocabulary Degree Figure: (c) Volker and van Tubergen. Teaching materials. SASR Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 12 / 40
  15. 13. Network Vocabulary Degree Figure: (c) Volker and van Tubergen. Teaching materials. SASR Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 13 / 40
  16. 14. Network Vocabulary Degree Figure: (c) Network Science by Barabasi Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 14 / 40
  17. 15. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 15 / 40
  18. 16. Influence and homophily Definition of homophily Birds of a feather flock together. WIKI: ”that people who are similar to each other or share similar interests tend to spend time with each other”. SNA language: ties occur at a higher rate than among dissimilar people. Lazarsfel and Merto (1954). ”Friendship as a social process:a substantive and methodological analysis”. They spoke of status and value homophily. Race and ethnicity (for the US), sex and gender, age, religion, education and occupation, attitudes and behavior. Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 16 / 40
  19. 17. Influence and homophily Consequences of homophily Is the use of contacts is endogenous to the level of social capital? (Mouw, 2001). Simple words: having contacts != using contacts. Do people influence each other (contagious behaviour, mobilization, finding a job) or simply have similar traits?. Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 17 / 40
  20. 18. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 18 / 40
  21. 19. Legislative behaviour The legislative process is a complicated beast (Woon, 2008). Any decision that is made in the parliament is built as a mosaic. Everyday it is possible to have two or three different mosaics (Novoe Vremya, 2016). Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 19 / 40
  22. 20. Legislative behaviour Figure: (c) Ostapchuk et al., VoxUkrain Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 20 / 40
  23. 21. Legislative behaviour Figure: (c) Ostapchuk et al., VoxUkrain Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 21 / 40
  24. 22. Legislative behaviour Figure: (c) Ostapchuk et al., VoxUkrain Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 22 / 40
  25. 23. Legislative behaviour Figure: (c) Ostapchuk et al., VoxUkraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 23 / 40
  26. 24. What is co-sponsorship? signal to voters device to match the positions popular in constituencies signal to the fellow legislators and/or potential partners in a coalition device to communicate ideological preferences, or a device to establish and promote an agenda spatial models (Poole and Rosenthal, 1985): legislators choose the best outcome by voting for the bill that is closest to their ideal preference Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 24 / 40
  27. 25. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 25 / 40
  28. 26. New literature new scholarship has recognized the importance of codependence, relationships, and mutual interests in legislative action (Fowler, 2006) legislative process is but one of the many examples of collaboration which is based on social ties and social networks Collaboration networks have been observed in various domains of human activity including business, science, public administration, and organized crime Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 26 / 40
  29. 27. Outline of the lecture 1 What is SNA From graphs to social networks Network Vocabulary Influence and homophily 2 Legislative behaviour Classic political thought and spatial models SNA and co-sponsoring New evidence from Ukraine Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 27 / 40
  30. 28. New evidence from Ukraine Problem 1. Respect, trust, friendship, cosponsorship and other examples of social ties have been studied extensively in order to characterize the social relationship between legislators. However, little is known about tie formation Problem 2. Studies of cosponsorship in legislatures other than the U.S. Congress are virtually nonexistent (Alenman et al., 2009) Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 28 / 40
  31. 29. New evidence from Ukraine DATA http://data.voxukraine.org Roll Call Votes (4 session of VIII convocation) Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 29 / 40
  32. 30. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: (c) DataVox Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 30 / 40
  33. 31. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: (c) DataVox Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 31 / 40
  34. 32. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: Imaginary Data Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 32 / 40
  35. 33. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: Imaginary Data Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 33 / 40
  36. 34. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: Imaginary Data Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 34 / 40
  37. 35. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: (c) Ostapchuk Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 35 / 40
  38. 36. New evidence from Ukraine QAP correlations for matrixes (co-writing) OLS regression for index of collaboration (co-voting) Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 36 / 40
  39. 37. New evidence from Ukraine DATA Figure: (c) Ostapchuk Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 37 / 40
  40. 38. New evidence from Ukraine RESULTS Homophily is not important for co-authoring, but homophily is important for co-voting. Co-voting behavior depends on similarities in (1) being in the same coalition; (2) being in the same faction; (3) being in any informal group (general activity); (4) electoral system; (5) having similar occupation in the past; (6) similar experience; (7) being of the same sex; (8) having a Facebook profile; (9) seating close to each other. Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 38 / 40
  41. 39. For Further Reading I Elisa Bellotti Qualitative Networks: Mixed Methods in Sociological Research. Routledge, 2014. Novoe Vremya. Vershyna Verkhovnoy Rady. 3 June (36), 2016. Alemn, E., Calvo, E., Jones, M. P., Kaplan, N Comparing Cosponsorship and RollCall Ideal Points. Legislative Studies Quarterly, 34(1), 87-116. Fowler, J.H. Legislative cosponsorship networks in the US House and Senate. Social Networks, 28(4), 454-465. Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 39 / 40
  42. 40. For Further Reading II McPherson, M., Smith-Lovin, L., Cook, J. M. Birds of a feather: Homophily in social networks. Annual review of sociology, 27(1), 415-444, 2001. Mouw, T. Social capital and finding a job: do contacts matter?. American sociological review, 868-898, 2003. Woon, J. Bill sponsorship in Congress: the moderating effect of agenda positions on legislative proposals. The Journal of Politics, 70(01), 201-216. Tymofii Brik, Dmytro Ostapchuk SNA and legislative behavior September 13, 2017 40 / 40